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Function[ edit ] Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient.
Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells.
Cells that are attracted by chemokines follow a signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokine. Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues.
These are known as homeostatic chemokines and are produced and secreted without any need to stimulate their source cell s. Some chemokines have roles in development; they promote angiogenesis the growth of new blood vesselsor guide cells to tissues that provide specific signals critical for cellular maturation.
Other chemokines are inflammatory and are released from a wide variety of cells in response to bacterial infection, viruses and agents that cause physical damage such as silica or the urate crystals that occur in gout.
Their release is often stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1. Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytesrecruiting monocytesneutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage.
Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing. They are released by many different cell types and serve to guide cells of both innate immune system and adaptive immune system.
Types by function[ edit ] Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: This classification is not strict; for example, CCL20 can act also as pro-inflammatory chemokine.
Homing hematopoietic The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of leukocytes homing in the respective anatomical locations in inflammatory and homeostatic processes. Their homeostatic function in homing is best exemplified by the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 expressed within lymph nodes and on lymphatic endothelial cells and their receptor CCR7 expressed on cells destined for homing in cells to these organs.
Using these ligands is possible routing antigen-presenting cells APC to lymph nodes during the adaptive immune response. Among other homeostatic chemokine receptors include: Typical inflammatory chemokines include: A typical example is CXCL-8, which acts as a chemoattractant for neutrophils.
In contrast to the homeostatic chemokine receptors, there is significant promiscuity redundancy associated with binding receptor and inflammatory chemokines. This often complicates research on receptor-specific therapeutics in this area.
There is also evidence that CXCL8 might be inhibitory of mast cells. Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. All chemokines are small, with a molecular mass of between 8 and 10 kDa.
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They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for creating their 3-dimensional or tertiary structuresuch as in most cases four cysteines that interact with each other in pairs to create a Greek key shape that is a characteristic of chemokines. Intramolecular disulfide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine.
Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptidesbeginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active mature portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell.
The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end.
A loop of approximately ten amino acids follows the first two cysteines and is known as the N-loop. These helices and strands are connected by turns called 30s, 40s and 50s loops; the third and fourth cysteines are located in the 30s and 50s loops.1) CXC English Language Paper 1 Multiple Choice Items Uriel Narinesingh 2) CXC Past Papers Social Studies General Proficiency (Latest Edition).
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