Ethical issues in recruitment and selection

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Ethical issues in recruitment and selection

A key determinant of the success of a clinical trial is the recruitment and retention of a study population of an adequate sample size.

Low rates of recruitment and retention have a number of negative implications, such as longer durations of the clinical trial, which may lower staff and participant morale; a costlier clinical trial, since extra resources may need to be dedicated to the recruitment effort; and less statistical power for both the study and the validity of the results.

In some cases, inadequate accrual of subjects may result in the termination of the trial. These barriers are already well recognized in the literature. The aim of this article is to examine if the identified barriers are in reality what is encountered by those involved in clinical trials today.

Qualitative Ethical issues in recruitment and selection collection Data was obtained on the barriers to recruitment and retention by carrying out in-depth semistructured interviews with a variety of professionals, employed in the United Kingdom, involved in recruitment to clinical trials, both nationally and internationally.

A total of 16 professionals were interviewed, including investigators, representatives from pharmaceutical companies, and representatives from contract research organizations.

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For practical reasons, the qualitative data collection for this study was limited to data collection from professionals in the United Kingdom who are involved in subject recruitment.

Seeking the opinion of study subjects was beyond the scope of this study and would necessitate a further study. Despite the small sample size used and the limited range of professionals interviewed, this study yielded some interesting observations.

The sidebar below lists the barriers found in the literature. While this research showed a strong consistency between the literature and the practical experience of those professionals interviewed, a number of enlightening differences between the accepted barriers and the actual barriers encountered in practice today were identified.

Interview respondents identified the same four broad categories of barrier to recruitment and retention as identified in the literature. Each of the key areas identified is discussed below. Interviewees identified many similar subject-related barriers to recruitment and retention as has been noted in the literature.

However, some important differences were also noted. According to the literature, long waiting times associated with clinic visits and inconvenient scheduling of appointments are barriers to recruitment and retention.

Secondly, the literature reports that subjects often fail to enter or complete clinical trials as they dislike the uncertainty associated with the trial, and in many cases prefer the doctor to make the decision about their treatment.

It may also reflect the growing knowledge among the public of medical-related matters perhaps as a result of people having greater access to information available on the Internet coupled with their concerns about risk.

However, public concerns about risk do not appear to conform to scientific or technical measures of risk, with an extensive body of literature having been written on this topic. A useful overview is provided by Slovic.

Interviewees reported that subjects who have unrealistic expectations of the clinical trial may be reluctant to complete the study protocol. Such expectations could imply a problem with the informed consent process, with details of the requirements associated with trial participation being poorly communicated to subjects.

This may result in reduced retention, with subjects dropping out prior to trial completion.

Ethical issues in recruitment and selection

These have not been conclusively recognized as barriers in the literature. Interviewees also noted that people are tending to change jobs more frequently and are moving to new locations to take up these jobs. Moving out of the area is an increasing potential barrier to subjects completing trial protocols.

This has not been widely reported in the literature, but is likely to become an issue if such trends continue within the work force. Despite investigators agreeing to recruit subjects to a clinical trial, many factors related to the trial investigator may prevent them recruiting adequate subject numbers.

The main barriers identified in the literature may be divided into logistical factors and personal factors. The recruitment and retention barriers identified in the literature review and by those interviewed were broadly consistent, but as with the subject-related barriers, some revealing differences were also noted.

An inability of the recruiting physicians to integrate their roles as caregivers with that of scientists is identified in the literature as a barrier to recruitment and retention. Many factors reported by those interviewed as being investigator-related barriers to recruitment and retention were not widely cited in the literature.

It may also be a reflection of research-focused clinicians becoming involved in too many clinical trials. This could reflect a poor choice of investigator to undertake the study, and could also imply poor communication between the sponsor company and the investigator as to the amount of work actually involved in the trial.

It could also imply that proper feasibility surveys are not being undertaken prior to study commencement. The correct choice of study site by those organizing a clinical trial is critical to the success of the clinical trial. A proper feasibility survey must be undertaken at an early stage in the study site selection process to ensure that the clinical trial can be conducted at the site of choice.

This survey will gather data on the availability of potential study subjects who meet the study entry criteria and the likely recruitment rate, as well as data on competitor studies on-going at the site and any regulatory or ethical issues.ETHICS IN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION.

Ethical business conduct offers a wide range of organizational integrity, involving strategy, business goals, policies and activities.

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Among ethical values are trust, respect, honesty, responsibility and the overall pursuit of perfection. ETHICAL ISSUES IN RECRUITING Code of ethics for jobseekers. Journal of Management and Marketing Research Grounded theory: Its use, page 4 RURAL HEALTHCARE WORKFORCE MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS In understanding the recruitment and retention practices utilized by rural healthcare.

Keywords: Ethics, Ethical Issues, Recruitment and Selection, Employee Performance Introduction Ethics is the aspect of conduct governing behavior of an individual or a group. Education & Training The Australian Human Resources Institute (AHRI) offers a range of world-class professional development services that are designed to advance the skills and knowledge of human resource and people management professionals – at any stage of their career.

Recruitment and selection forms the foundation of the core activities and processes underlying human resource management and such activities include the acquisition, training and development, and rewarding performance of workers (Gilmore, and Williams, ). The success and sustainability of most organizations is directly proportional to skills and competencies of the employees.

These issues are by far the largest category of ethical dilemmas in business. Recruitment or hiring process is the first step in selecting human resource into an organization, and will significantly influence the successful performance of the organization/5(9).

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