His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing.
Please address correspondence to Dr. From Population and Environment: Life on Earth is driven by energy. Autotrophs take it from solar radiation and heterotrophs take it from autotrophs. The control of fire and the exploitation of fossil fuels have made it possible for Homo sapiens to release, in a short time, vast amounts of energy that accumulated long before the species appeared.
By using extrasomatic energy to modify more and more of its environment to suit human needs, the human population effectively expanded its resource base so that for long periods it has exceeded contemporary requirements.
This allowed an expansion of population similar to that of species introduced into extremely, propitious new habitats, such as rabbits in Australia or Japanese beetles in the United States.
But the exhaustion of fossil fuels, which supply three quarters of this energy, is not far off, and no other energy source is abundant and cheap enough to take their place.
If there are survivors, they will not be able to carry on the cultural traditions of civilization, which require abundant, cheap energy. It is unlikely, however, that the species itself can long persist without the energy whose exploitation is so much a part of its modus vivendi.
The human species may be seen as having evolved in the service of entropy, and it cannot be expected to outlast the dense accumulations of energy that have helped define its niche.
Ever since Malthus, at least, it has been clear that means of subsistence do not grow as fast as population. But in the same two centuries world population has grown exponentially while irreplaceable resources were used up.
Some kind of adjustment is inevitable. Today, many people who are concerned about overpopulation and environmental degradation believe that human actions can avert catastrophe.
Unfortunately, worldwide implementation of a rigorous program of birth control is politically impossible. Conservation is futile as long as population continues to rise.
And no resources are truly renewable. If all of nature were in perfect balance, every species would have a constant population, sustained indefinitely at carrying capacity. But the history of life involves competition among species, with new species evolving and old ones dying out.
In this context, one would expect populations to fluctuate, and for species that have been studied, they generally do ecology texts such as Odum, and Ricklefs, give examples. The notion of balance in nature is an integral part of traditional western cosmology.
But science has found no such balance. According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, energy flows from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration, and local processes run down. Living organisms may accumulate energy temporarily but in the fullness of time entropy prevails.
While the tissue of life that coats the planet Earth has been storing up energy for over three billion years, it cannot do so indefinitely.
Sooner or later, energy that accumulates must be released. This is the bioenergetic context in which Homo sapiens evolved, and it accounts for both the wild growth of human population and its imminent collapse.
There has been life on Earth for at least three and a half billion years, and over this time there has been a clear and constant evolution in the way energy is used.click here Energy and Human Evolution by David Price. Please address correspondence to Dr.
Price, Carpenter Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Below you will find three outstanding thesis statements / paper topics for “Things Fall Apart” by Chinua Achebe that can be used as essay starters. Chinua Achebe is one of Africa's most well-known and influential contemporary writers.
His first novel, Things Fall Apart, is an early narrative about the European colonization of Africa told from the point of view of the colonized people.
On our obsession with model villages, an extract from Simon Garfield’s In Miniature: How Small Things Illuminate the World.A journey that takes you from the Floridian ruins of Splendid China to Jimmy Cauty’s The Aftermath Dislocation Principle (), miniature worlds are about exercising control, over landscape, architecture and tiny people themselves.
click here Energy and Human Evolution by David Price. Please address correspondence to Dr. Price, Carpenter Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY In the novel, “Things Fall Apart’, by Chinua Achebe, proverbs have an important impact on the storyline.
All proverbs have some kind of deeper meaning behind them, and this is part of the Nigerian culture. Proverbs are used by people of all ages and statures to tell others about the importance.